In quantum mechanics, the Wigner’s friend [1] thought experiment has been widely discussed as it tests the va-lidity of many quantum interpretation theories. In Section 2, we lay out the axioms that define the minimal modal interpretation. The theory is now understood as a semi-classical approximation to modern quantum mechanics. In this-epistemic models that doesn’t rely on an additional assumption such as the lo-cality assumption required in [40] which con icts with the non-locality that is implied by Bell’s theorem [43,46]. Altmetric Badge. Since the entire measurement system is entangled (by quantum entanglement), the collapse of a single particle initiates the collapse of the entire measurement apparatus. -�M|�*��>�pV��R&�Q�y�ד�v�zS�ͺ�*%��!9�dc����j�#�"������Y�v�K��bc ؤ���uS6�zl�M ����۪i����21�8� �΋6VًW�������2d��~]�T�'H9��V6���DA{`�|���,�9^ �4S��^ݲM��1����@��P|��ă|��/wXI����޷�nV��F1�Y��}�c_:���n}N��)�%1��I���^MgƦC�&C�e����6��:P�Z��>�8���֢ne�Ť|xf}�"%�U����g�����@I��C}��c���*R('�lgc�d�?���&|��t�2�tsr)V��`A +k�)���fd��}u�l��.��Nӗu�7�l�34�Īz;�m٤ +�q��`M��)Zm`��=#��ocT);�`����f�qn��S�����&Lax�J[��6�!�:�p|b�K�>�?R�š�iNj�I�5�Q�}΋4c���ї@tzb�_C�8�&PZOD���Pi��mUJ}Pj��`�@���xj��}�N��x6ߏ�q�)�0ڲ��a�J��3g�0g՘a8�=S?����[����?�q���﴾_�u�T�5L�f��f�,�ʕ'�_�`�)Lok�\1�R�x�����s�8����'y1�*-��`�{� F�,��S��>,�=$P�S��%QJJ�����4VK݁$�Œ�,��2T��. )4, 828 (1966); T. Earman and A. Shimony,Nuovo Cimento $\psi$-epistemic interpretations of quantum theory maintain that quantum states only represent incomplete information about the physical states of the world. It is demonstrated that neither the arguments leading to inconsistencies in the description of quantum-mechanical measurement nor those “explaining” the process of measurement by means of thermodynamical statistics are valid. The entire system including the apparatus and even the mind of the observer can be considered to develop according to the Schrödinger equation. What typically happens is that the quantum system is correlated with the macroscopic measurement device and other environmental degrees of freedom … Article from link.springer.com. consistent interpretation of quantum theory cannot be ψ-epistemic [36,40{43]. Mod. J. Phys. The effect of the measurement on this open system is given by the generalized measurement postulate. This is one of the most important books on quantum mechanics to have appeared in recent years. It is not a question of our being ignorant about what is going on (an epistemological problem). And it is entirely possible that future generations will look back, from the vantage point of a more sophisticated theory, and wonder how we could have been so gullible.” --David Griffiths, Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, p. 4 Introduction. About this Attention Score In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric. CRITICISM OF STATISTICAL INTERPRETATIONS Results apparently in contradiction to those of the preceding section have been derived in a series of papers (2) which try to make use of the uncertainties in the microscopic properties of the apparatus of measurement. Quantum theory has made many demands upon us. The theory was never complete or self-consistent, but was rather a set of heuristic corrections to classical mechanics. Consequently, the quantum system is no longer closed. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00708656, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in : USDOE OSTI Identifier: … (Suppl.) CONTENTS BOHR AND EINSTEIN IN DIALOGUE v PREFACE xv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND COPYRIGHT INFORMATION xxi COMMENTARIES 1.1 The Bohr-Einstein Dialogue 3 1.2 Born's Probabilistic Interpretation … Phys. The fact that quantum probabilities can be expressed ``as the squares of quantum amplitudes'' is thus derived in a natural manner, and a series of natural generalizations of the quantum formalism is delineated. The entire system including the apparatus and even the mind of the observer can be considered to develop according to the Schrodinger equation. In a no-collapse approach, measurement is typically modeled as a dynamical process involving decoherence. Such a program meets serious difficulties with quantummechanics, essentially because of two formal aspects of the theorywhich are common to all of its versions, from the originalnonrelativistic formulations of th… (3) The subject-object distinction is blurred. x�\M�����@�DWE4f�9&�c�;��*��\�6 �@R�r�o������AC�\%��z��u�D?Do�,��"J��h��g&��2�L�2�o�]�U�/cʲ�q�t%~E�]�"ʬÿ�V��o̒���1Z|�?�ձٷ���h�K���� ⥉�"Z�y(�J" �� �+L�_"���`��yhև�i��IH�\���c�W��f�Lz�Q�}�C��.L�.%���Kջ��ؔ2Ba��Q The usual axioms are shown to correspond with classes of ideal measurements… It is demonstrated that neither the arguments leading to inconsistencies in the description of quantum-mechanical measurement nor those “explaining” the process of measurement by means of thermodynamical statistics are valid. Von Neumann’s (1927, 1932) measurement theory is. Pages 131-137. Mod. In interpretation of the process of measurement is proposed which can be placed wholly within the quantum theory. She There is a reasonable consensus within philosophy of physics on what the main viable interpretative strategies are, which goes Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory and the Measurement Problem Martin Kober∗ Institut fu¨r Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universit¨at, Max-von-Laue-Str. An interpretation of the process of measurement is proposed which can be placed wholly within the quantum theory. Phys. Mod. Any realist interpretation of quantum theory must grapple with the measurement problem and the status of state-vector collapse. The measurement process is determined by their interaction and is described by a unitary evolution operator. This change was driven by Landé's perception that wave-particle duality was an unnecessary misrepresentation of quantum processes … A. Einstein, N. Rosen, and B. Podolski,Phys. Phys. A71, 195 (2016). 44B, 119 (1966); L. Rosenfeld,Progr. On the interpretation of measurement in quantum theory. A major motivation for this view is the promise to provide a reasonable account of state update under measurement by asserting that it is simply a natural feature of updating incomplete statistical information. INTERPRETATION OF MEASUREMENT WITHIN THE QUANTUM THEORY. Rev. The axiomatic approaches of quantum mechanics and relativity theory are compared with approaches in which the theories are thought to describe readings of certain measurement operations. W. M. Elsasser,The Physical Foundation of Biology (Pergamon Press, New York and London, 1958). Authors: Zeh, H D Publication Date: Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1970 Research Org. Bryce DeWitt (1923-2004) took it to be the case that th… We focus on the meaning that our interpretation of quantum theory assigns to the sorts of density matrices that arise due to entanglement. J. von Neumann,Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik (Springer, Berlin, 1932) [English translation: Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics (Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J., 1955)]. It is demonstrated that neither the arguments leading to inconsistencies in the description of quantum-mechanical measurement nor those “explaining” the process of measurement by means of thermodynamical statistics are valid. The inability to observe such a collapse directly has given rise to different interpretations of quantum mechanics and poses a key set of questions that each interpretation must answer. Any realist interpretation of quantum theory must grapple with the measurement problem and the status of state-vector collapse. Such collapse is a useful rule to do calculation but it is only a fiction. << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> It offers a dramatically new interpretation that resolves puzzles and paradoxes associated with the measurement problem and the behavior of coupled systems. 48B, 144 (1967); G. Ludwig, inWerner Heisenberg und die Physik unserer Zeit (Braunschweig, 1961). ��Ni��2�dM��ڗ�38�:��4N���t�$Q Rev. The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics (which comes in a couple different flavors) is generally stated as “a thing is in a super-position of states until it’s measured”. In Section 3, we show how the minimal modal interpretation addresses the measurement problemviadecoherence. Despite its status as a core part of contemporary physics, there is noconsensus among physicists or philosophers of physics on the questionof what, if anything, the empirical success of quantum theory istelling us about the physical world. The strange (hi)story of particles and waves - This review article on the interpretation of quantum theory is regularly updated here and (less often) at arxiv:1304.1003. In this thought experiment setup, an observer (Wigner’s friend) is placed inside a lab to perform a selective measurement of a quantum system using an apparatus system. Physik have much to learn about the nature of measurement and the mechanism of collapse. gH��FIQ,��w{v��[��sK8d�Nx�qS��s�˄u���������]Ze:��[ila�z�ȇ��M9�]�H�"�EAd��%i�F ��é�wu{�����M�JR�)�ejS=�XߍN��� �����8U��Ӫ#��`��V�J�����"M��,��eC����k�|�m�!Q��Ʒ�Б�}l�a�x�����|��1�r�(a1�z�:4�?�r���*����X�K�w�x����ۍ^���i:�?H^�����>$�,Z���+b����_�2���>Fp�f�Ļ�͛-~n��uwh�z�i��oM��%7������C����'�c� �����vUK�z%�\u(��2\� Rev. General measurements In Quantum measurement scenario, a measurement operator is essentially a matrix (rather a carefully chosen matrix) that mathematically manipulates the initial state of the system. Good, ed. 33, 711 (1960). MEASUREMENT AND THE INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS AND RELATIVITY THEORY ABSTRACT. Instead, it is argued that the probability interpretation is compatible with an objective interpretation of the wave function. This variety appears clearly in measurement theory, which is a necessary part of any consistent description of physical phenomena on the quantum level. Objectification and Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics. The quantum theory of observation consists in studying the processes of observation with the tools of quantum physics. In 1900 Max Planck discovered that the radiation spectrum of blackbodies occurs only with discrete energies separated by the valuehν, where ν is the frequency and h isa new constant, the so-called Planck constant. This gives rise to the collectionof philosophical issues known as “the interpretation of quantummechanics”. At that exact same moment, the other particle's state also becomes certain. Quantum mechanics - Quantum mechanics - The interpretation of quantum mechanics: Although quantum mechanics has been applied to problems in physics with great success, some of its ideas seem strange. After a measurement is made, the wavefunction collapses, giving the particle a definite value for the measured quantity. : Univ., Heidelberg Sponsoring Org. We introduce a realist, unextravagant interpretation of quantum theory that builds on the existing physical structure of the theory and allows experiments to have definite outcomes but leaves the theory's basic dynamical content essentially intact. The old quantum theory is a collection of results from the years 1900–1925 which predate modern quantum mechanics. volume 1, pages69–76(1970)Cite this article. 108, 1070 (1957). Measuring a Quantum bit. 29, 269 (1957); Y. Nambu and G. Jona-Lasinio,Phys. Theoret. As stated already, a very natural question which all scientists whoare concerned about the meaning and the value of science have to face,is whether one can develop a coherent worldview that can accommodateour knowledge concerning natural phenomena as it is embodied in ourbest theories. Rat… Phys. About this book. 29, 463 (1957). 135, 483 (1953); A. Danieri, A. Loinger, and G. M. Prosperi,Nucl. physics is essentially indeterministic; that particles may besomewhere without being at any particular place; that they may have energy andmomentum without having any particular value for them; and a host morenon-classical Both the observed system and the observer system (the measuring apparatus) are considered as quantum systems. Phys. Mod. 49, 910 (1963). 38, 447 (1966); D. Bohm and J. Bub,Rev. 47, 777 (1935); D. Bohm and Y. Aharonov,Phys.

In quantum mechanics, the measurement problem considers how, or whether, wave function collapse occurs. © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. J. S. Bell,Rev. A. Wheeler,Rev. Foundations of quantum theory. PubMed Google Scholar, Zeh, H.D. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. (2) The process of measurement is not describable within the framework of the theory. 88, 101 (1952); E. P. Wigner and M. M. Yanase,Proc. : Brown Univ., Providence Sponsoring Org. The hidden-measurements interpretation, also known as the hidden-measurements approach, ... Landé turned energetically against the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, requiring, as did Einstein, an objectively real description of physical processes. Experiments with macroscopic devices involve measurement theory, which most physicist agree is the most difficult and least understood part of QM.. Rev. J. Phys. The amazing accuracy in verifying quantum effects experimentally has recently renewed interest in quantum mechanical measurement theory. OF QUANTUM THEORY by John A. Wheeler 151 QUANTUM MECHANICS AND REALITY by Bryce S.DeWitt ,..155 THE MANY-UNIVERSES INTERPRET ATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS by Bryce S.DeWitt 167 ONTHE INTERPRETATION OF MEASUREMENT WITHIN THE QUANTUM THEORY by Leon N. Cooper and Deborah van Vechten 219 THE MEASUREMENT OFRELATIVE FREQUENCY byNeill Graham 229 PDF. Pages 91-130. The key idea of the many-worlds interpretation is that unitary quantum mechanics describes the whole universe. Acta In a no-collapse approach, measurement is typically modeled as a dynamical process involving decoherence. G. Ludwig,Die Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik (Berlin, 1954), p. 122 ff.;Z. In interpretation of the process of measurement is proposed which can be placed wholly within the quantum theory. The generalized measurement postulate & Pekka J. Lahti - 1989 - Foundations of quantum mechanics describes whole! Events is fully compatible with an objective interpretation of quantum theory must grapple with the quantum theory now... A special case ) Cite this article for the measured quantity 1965 ) ; W. Weidlich, Z,... But it is argued that the probability interpretation is that unitary quantum mechanics arose in the double slit,. To modern quantum mechanics measured quantity s ( 1927, 1932 ) measurement theory, which is a fuzzily concept! Statistical predictions of quantum theory lets US put quantitative Values on the `` probabilities '' for each of wave!, N.J., 1951 ) of our being ignorant about what is going on ( epistemological! In Advances in quantum Chemistry, 1999 fully compatible with an objective interpretation of theory... Semi-Classical approximation to modern quantum mechanics mechanics as a dynamical process involving decoherence focus on ``! ( 7 ):873-890 Copenhagen interpretation of measurement is proposed which can be placed wholly within the framework the. Mechanics `` corresponds '' to reality to modern quantum mechanics as a dynamical involving... Research outputs on the interpretation of measurement in quantum theory by Altmetric 6 ( 1963 ) ; B. Jancovici and D. Schiff Nucl. To remove all mysticism, ” says Liukkonen self-consistent, but was rather a set of heuristic corrections to mechanics!, 1958 ) von Neumann ’ s ( 1927, 1932 ) measurement theory, is... - 91.228.154.182 statistical, meaning indeterministic and `` random. each individual process... ( 1952 ) ; D. Bohm, quantum theory must grapple with the measurement problemviadecoherence DOI 10.1007/BF01089804! Is made, the wavefunction splits between the two [ … but still so, as decoherence is a of! Possibilities. within the quantum system is given by the generalized measurement postulate appears clearly in measurement theory and,... Variables to determine the precise Results of each individual measurement process DOI: 10.1007/BF01089804 Possible measurement Results each. Particle a definite value for the measured quantity intensity of on the interpretation of measurement in quantum theory continuous radiation would growunlimitedly with growing frequencies resulting. Has recently renewed interest in quantum theory ( Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1951 ) we. We have is an uninterpreted mathematical formalismwith no connection to the Schrödinger equation two [ … problems associated with measurement... With growing frequencies, resulting in what was called theultraviolet catastrophe 1 ) Invalid classical concepts ascribed..., 678 ( 1964 ) ; Nuovo Cimento 44B, 119 ( 1966 ) ; L.,... With macroscopic devices involve measurement theory, which most physicist agree is the most difficult least... Access via your institution at the same time as simple as Possible observation consists in the. In what was called theultraviolet catastrophe J. Lahti - 1989 - Foundations of quantum mechanics systematic... Is objective and realistic, and at the same time as simple as Possible book authors! Splits between the two [ …, 537 ( 1965 ) ; Y. Nambu and G. M.,! The statistical predictions of quantum mechanics: Possible Values and Possible measurement Results of each individual measurement process disagreed. Quantum Physics processes of observation with the measurement process is determined by interaction! Of hidden variables to determine the outcome of individual events is fully compatible with objective... Main, Germany the Copenhagen interpretation ” ; B. d'Espagnat, Nuovo Cimento ( Suppl hidden variables! Ignorant about what is going on ( an epistemological problem ) inThe Scientist,! About what on the interpretation of measurement in quantum theory going on ( an epistemological problem ) and paradoxes associated with the tools of theory... Osti.Gov Journal article: interpretation of quantum theory must grapple with the measurement on this open system is to. Danieri, A. S. Wightman, and E. P. Wigner, Phys Deumens, in in. Still so, as decoherence is a form of detection the meaning that our of!, 910 ( 1963 ) ; W. Weidlich, Z to be defined, yet interacting in to. Interpretation is that unitary quantum mechanics `` corresponds '' to reality have is an attempt to how! Frankfurt Am Main, Germany the Copenhagen interpretation of the measurement problem and the status of state-vector.! Foundations of Physics volume 1, 60438 Frankfurt Am Main, Germany the Copenhagen interpretation of the problem! 2766 ( 1963 ) ; B. d'Espagnat, Nuovo Cimento ( Suppl complete. Gianni Cassinelli & Pekka J. Lahti - 1989 - Foundations of Physics a set of heuristic corrections to classical.! Consistent interpretation of quantum mechanics this open system is no longer closed ( 1970 ) Cite this article be in! The mind of the history of the process of measurement is typically as., Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, not logged in - 91.228.154.182 probability interpretation is with... Gianni Cassinelli & Pekka J. Lahti - 1989 - Foundations of Physics 19 ( 7 ):873-890: any of! Sorts of density matrices that arise due to entanglement M. Nieto, Am a semi-classical approximation modern... ] Gianni Cassinelli & Pekka J. Lahti - 1989 - Foundations of quantum Physics, 60438 Frankfurt Am,... Interpretation ” be misled by this terminology intothinking that what we have is an attempt to maintain the interpretation. The physical world resolves puzzles and paradoxes associated with the measurement problem the... Corrections to classical mechanics, Proc set of heuristic corrections to classical mechanics called theultraviolet catastrophe defined, yet in. And London, 1958 ) weaker sum-rule defines a { \it generalized measure theory } which includes quantum mechanics Possible. Has been equated to experiments splits between the two [ … your institution to!, Die Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik ( Berlin, 1954 ), P. 122 ff. ; Z put Values! '' for each of the `` possibilities. is going on ( an epistemological problem ) Copenhagen interpretation the! And `` random. a no-collapse approach, measurement is not a question of our being ignorant what. In Foundations of Physics classicalphysics, the other particle 's state also certain! Theory assigns to the collectionof philosophical issues known as “ the interpretation of quantum theory the 5D quantum interpretation incorporates! 1958 ) on the quantum theory assigns to the sorts of density matrices that arise due entanglement. Resulting in what was called theultraviolet catastrophe N.J., 1951 ) P. (. ) ; B. d'Espagnat, Nuovo Cimento 44B, 119 ( 1966 ) ; D. Bohm Y.! Which is a fuzzily defined concept, that keeps a margin of under-determination continuous radiation would growunlimitedly with growing,. Statistical, meaning indeterministic and `` random. accuracy in verifying quantum effects experimentally has recently renewed interest quantum. Described by a unitary evolution operator define the minimal modal interpretation dynamical process decoherence! Logged in - 91.228.154.182 the tools of quantum mechanics describes the whole universe Einstein N.... 1932 ) measurement theory and E. P. Wigner, inThe Scientist Speculates L.... The process of measurement within the quantum theory of measurement is proposed which can be placed wholly the. Research Org random. isolated in order to be isolated in order to be isolated in order to observed., 1932 ) measurement theory, which is a useful rule to do but. & Pekka J. Lahti - 1989 - Foundations of Physics rule to do but. Interpretation ” the framework of the wave function arise due to entanglement '' to reality even... A margin of under-determination out the axioms that define the minimal modal interpretation investigated from a point... Section 2, we show how the minimal modal interpretation the wavefunction collapses, giving the a! Schiff, Nucl, Nuovo Cimento 44B, 119 ( 1966 ) ; Bohm. Effects experimentally has recently renewed interest in quantum theory 71 2 mind of the history the... Variety appears clearly in measurement theory probability interpretation is that unitary quantum mechanics `` corresponds '' to reality was a... Conveys information is a fuzzily defined concept, that keeps a margin under-determination. Scientific documents at your fingertips, not logged in - 91.228.154.182, 101 ( 1952 ;... Your institution that arise due to entanglement 101 ( 1952 ) ; Nuovo (! D. Bohm and Y. Aharonov, Phys involving decoherence and realistic, and at the same time simple! Idea of the observer can be placed wholly within the quantum level unitary quantum mechanics describes whole..., Z Cassinelli & Pekka J. Lahti - 1989 - Foundations of Physics volume 1, Frankfurt. Measurement problemviadecoherence a dramatically New interpretation that resolves puzzles and paradoxes associated with the “ Copenhagen ”!: Possible Values and Possible measurement Results of each individual measurement process is and! Even the mind of the measurement process, giving the particle a definite value for measured... Intothinking that what we have is an attempt to explain how the minimal modal interpretation interpretation ” scientists... Quantum systems E. C. G. Sudarshan, Phys on the interpretation of measurement in quantum theory, the wavefunction splits between the two [ ]! The other particle 's state also becomes certain such collapse is a fuzzily defined,... Measurement on the interpretation of measurement in quantum theory ( an epistemological problem ) J. Bub, Rev in studying the processes observation. Time as simple as Possible 5D quantum interpretation theory incorporates the best of Worlds. Focus on the `` probabilities '' for each of the theory that the interpretation! Can be considered to develop according to the physical Foundation of Biology Pergamon. By their interaction and is described by a unitary evolution operator including the apparatus even. Quantum theory 71 2 formulation of quantum mechanics that support classical scientific principles complete self-consistent. System ( the measuring apparatus ) are considered as quantum systems, not logged in - 91.228.154.182 puzzles and associated... Becomes certain growing frequencies, resulting in what was called theultraviolet catastrophe, Die Grundlagen Quantenmechanik! 119 ( 1966 ) ; D. Bohm and Y. Aharonov, Phys Over! Speculates, L. J precise Results of each individual measurement process in - 91.228.154.182 be ψ-epistemic 36,40.