[105], Kīlauea has been a tourist attraction since the 1840s, and local businessmen such as Benjamin Pitman and George Lycurgus ran a series of hotels at the rim, including Volcano House, which is still the only hotel or restaurant located within Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park. Hawaii's Kilauea volcano erupts 00:59. [31] Kīlauea has some interactions with Mauna Loa, its larger neighbor and only other recently active volcano on the island; interspersed lava flows and ash deposits belonging to its neighbor have been found on its flanks, and some of Mauna Loa's flows are, in turn, blanketed in Kīlauea tephra. Kīlauea's most recent eruption (before the currently ongoing one) began on January 3, 1983, and ended in 2018. On May 3, 2018, new fissures formed, and lava began erupting in lower Puna after a 5.0 earthquake earlier in the day, causing evacuations of the Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions. [6][7] The County of Hawaii reported that 716 dwellings were destroyed by lava. [26] Geologists have suggested that "pulses" of magma entering Mauna Loa's deeper magma system may have increased pressure inside Kīlauea and triggered the concurrent eruptions. Lava briefly overflowed the vent onto the floor of Halemaʻumaʻu in April and May 2015, October 2016, and April 2018. Kilauea, also called Mount Kilauea, the world’s most active volcanic mass, located on the southeastern part of the island of Hawaii, Hawaii state, U.S. [47], In addition to the nearly continuous activity at Puʻu ʻOʻo and other vents on the east rift zone, a separate eruption began at Kilauea's summit in March 2008. [37], The volcano was active again in 1868, 1877, 1884, 1885, 1894, and 1918,[23] before its next major eruption in 1918–1919. Nonetheless, their proximity has led to a historical trend in which high activity at one volcano roughly coincides with low activity at the other. [22], The volcano's observed history has mostly been one of effusive eruptions; however, this is a relatively recent occurrence. Since then, lava continues to enter the crater, and the lava lake appears to be stable. Choked by trapped smoke, Pele emerged. Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano has been a hotbed of explosive activity since early May, gushing lava and toxic gases that have destroyed more than 25 homes and forced thousands of … The 2018 lower Puna eruption, which began May 3, opened two dozen lava vents downrift from the summit in Puna over the course of several weeks. [80] The eruptions of 1820, 1924, 1959 and 1960 have a VEI of 2. ", "The Hawaiian-Emperor Volcanic Chain – Geological Evolution", "Kīlauea – Perhaps the World's Most Active Volcano", "Lo'ihi Seamount Hawai'i's Youngest Submarine Volcano", "Historical Eruptions of Kilauea Volcano: Summary of Eruptions", "Kilauea's east rift zone: an enormous ridge from the summit caldera to the ocean floor", "Vulcanology: Interaction between Kilauea and Mauna Loa", "Geological Map of the Summit Region of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii", "Inflation along Kilauea's Southwest Rift Zone in 2006", Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, "Volcanic Landforms of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park", Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, "Oldest radiometric ages from Kilauea about 275,000 years", Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, "Kilauea: an explosive volcano in Hawai'i", "The 1840 Kilauea eruption was big, spectacular, and made the Sand Hills", "Revisiting the 1919–1920 Mauna Iki eruption", "The beginning of a new era – Kilauea's 1952 summit eruption", "The 1960 Kapoho Eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i", "What volcanoes have had the longest eruptions? Recent activity has mostly shifted to Kīlauea's eastern rift zone, the site of 24 historical eruptions, located mostly on its upper section; by contrast, the volcano's southwestern rift zone has been relatively quiet, and has only been the site of five events to date. Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Traditionally, Kīlauea is viewed by many Native Hawaiians as the home of the volcanic deity Pelehonuamea. It was the 11th National Park in the United States, and the first in a Territory;[107] a few weeks later, the National Park Service Organic Act was signed into law, creating the National Park Service and tasking it with running the expanding system. Kilauea is a shield-type volcano, meaning it has a broad, gently sloping cone (resembling a warrior’s shield). [85] The Kīlauea coast also hosts three of the nine known critically endangered hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting sites on the island. The first well-documented eruption of Kīlauea occurred in 1823 (Western contact and written history began in 1778). In: Venzke, E (ed. Early on, fountains of lava burst out as much as 540 meters (1772 ft) high. In 1986, activity shifted down the rift to a new vent, named Kūpaʻianahā, where it took on a more effusive character. Half of all eruptions occur at or near Kīlauea's summit caldera. [22] Much of the volcano is covered in historical flows, and 90 percent of its surface dates from the last 1,100 years. [94] The prevailing lowland forest ecosystem was transformed from forest to grassland; some of this change was caused by the use of fire, but the main reason appears to have been the introduction of the Polynesian rat (Rattus exulans). The eruption of 1790 has a VEI of 4. [93] Early settlements had a major impact on the local ecosystem, and caused many extinctions, particularly amongst bird species, as well as introducing foreign plants and animals and increasing erosion rates. Historically, the five volcanoes on the island were considered sacred by the Hawaiian people, and in Hawaiian mythology Kīlauea's Halemaʻumaʻu served as the body and home of Pele, goddess of fire, lightning, wind, and volcanoes. [71] On December 1, 2020, the lake was approximately 49 metres (161 ft) deep. Ever since Hawaii's Kilauea stopped erupting in August 2018, ceasing activity for the first time in 35 years, scientists have been wondering about the volcano's future. [12] William Ellis, a missionary from England, gave the first modern account of Kīlauea and spent two weeks traveling along the volcano; since its foundation by Thomas Jaggar in 1912, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, located on the rim of Kīlauea Caldera, has served as the principal investigative and scientific body on the volcano and the island in general. Shield volcanoes spread across a wider area than their more explosive counterparts, sometimes appearing as if a giant warrior laid his shield over the earth, hence its name. Kīlauea (UK: /ˌkiːlaʊˈeɪə/ KEEL-ow-AY-ə, US: /ˌkɪləˈweɪə/ KIL-ə-WAY-ə, Hawaiian: [tiːlɐwˈwɛjə]) is an active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands. At the summit, a vent within Halema‘uma‘u hosted an active lava pond and vigorous gas plume from 2008 to 2018. Beginning in February 2010, a lava pond was visible at the bottom of the crater almost continuously through the beginning of May 2018. Smithsonian Institution. [8] By early August the eruption subsided substantially, and the last active lava was reported at the surface on September 4, 2018. Plant life in the region is practically nonexistent. The US Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory reported that three vents were feeding lava into the bottom of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater, boiling off the water lake that had been growing since summer 2019 and replacing it with a lava lake. [82], Kīlauea's bulk affects local climate conditions through the influence of trade winds coming predominantly from the northeast, which, when squeezed upwards by the volcano's height, result in a moister windward side and a comparatively arid leeward flank. The majority of the species present on the island are endemic to it and can be found nowhere else on Earth, the result of an isolated evolutionary lineage sheltered from external biotic influence; this makes its ecosystem vulnerable both to invasive species and human development, and an estimated third of the island's natural flora and fauna has already gone extinct. Topographically Kīlauea appears as only a bulge on the southeastern flank of Mauna Loa, and so for many years Kīlauea was thought to be a mere satellite of its giant neighbor, not a separate volcano. Unlike most [83], Much of Kīlauea's southern ecosystem lies within the Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, where a’e ferns, ʻōhiʻa trees (Metrosideros polymorpha), and hapu’u of the genus Cibotium are common. This is not always the case; the 1984 eruption of Mauna Loa started during an eruption at Kīlauea, but had no discernible effect on the Kīlauea eruption, and the ongoing inflation of Mauna Loa's summit, indicative of a future eruption, began the same day as new lava flows at Kīlauea's Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater. Yet, while eruptions are spectacular to watch, they can cause disastrous loss of life and property, especially in densely populated regions of the world. These ahupuaʻa generally took the form of long strips of land oriented from the mountain summits to the coast. Today, the park, renamed the Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, is a major conservatory agency and tourist attraction, and, since 1987, a World Heritage Site. [36][39] Volcanic activity was soon confined to the summit, and ceased completely after 1934. [103] After initial funding ran out, the Observatory was successively funded by the National Weather Service, the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and the National Park Service, before settling on the USGS, under whose banner the observatory has been operating since 1947. The earliest lavas from the volcano date back to its submarine preshield stage, samples having been recovered by remotely operated underwater vehicles from its submerged slopes; samples of other flows have been recovered as core samples. In particular, the saddle between the two volcanoes is currently depressed, and is likely to fill over in the future. Muehlberger. In 1823 Kīlauea's summit caldera was far deeper than it is today, but was in the process of filling up under nearly continuous summit eruption, with 3 km3 (1 cu mi) of lava erupted there alone by 1840. [114][115], Kīlauea's Fissure 8 cone erupting on the morning of June 28, 2018, Effect of the 2018 lower Puna eruption on Kīlauea's summit, 2019–20: Water lake appears at the summit. In historical times, Kilauea has been Hawaii’s most active volcano. A Landsat8 image (top) of Kilauea volcano taken on March 15, 2018. This type of volcano can have eruptions accompanied by lahars -- deadly mudflows. [59], By May 31, 87 houses in Leilani Estates and nearby areas had been destroyed by lava. The eruption was preceded by earthquake swarms centered at Kīlauea Caldera on November 30, 2020 and December 2, 2020, the second of which was interpreted as a small intrusion of magma. Kilauea is one of the most accessible volcanoes in the world. Kīlauea is the home of Pele, the Hawaiian volcano goddess. [17] The oldest volcano on the island, Kohala, is more than a million years old,[18] and Kīlauea, the youngest, is believed to be between 300,000 and 600,000 years of age;[17] Lōʻihi Seamount, on the island's flank, is younger and has yet to breach the surface. Events last anywhere between days and years, and occur at a number of different sites. Hawaii volcano eruption: What type of volcano is Kilauea? Location: Island of Hawai‘iLatitude: 19.421° NLongitude: 155.287° WElevation: 1,222 (m) 4,009 (f)Volcano type: ShieldComposition: BasaltMost recent eruption: 2018Nearby towns: Volcano, Pāhoa, Kalapana, Mountain ViewThreat Potential: Very High *, Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), Mapping, Remote Sensing, and Geospatial Data, Photo and Video Chronology – Kīlauea – February 23, 2021, Photo and Video Chronology – Kīlauea – February 22, 2021, Photo and Video Chronology – Kīlauea – February 19, 2021. Structurally, Kīlauea has a large, fairly recently formed caldera at its summit and two active rift zones, one extending 125 km (78 mi) east and the other 35 km (22 mi) west, as an active fault of unknown depth moving vertically an average of 2 to 20 mm (0.1 to 0.8 in) per year. Volcano, vent in the crust of Earth or another planet or satellite, from which issue eruptions of molten rock, hot rock fragments, and hot gases.A volcanic eruption is an awesome display of Earth’s power. "Kīlauea Volcano Erupts in Explosive and Effusive Cycles", "Civil Defense: Kilauea eruption confined to summit, no reports of damage", "Hawaii volcano erupts from summit, shooting plume of ash", "Into thin air:Lava flows claim Hawaii's largest lake in a matter of hours", "Kapoho Beach Lots, Vacationland destroyed by lava", "Preliminary summary of Kilauea Volcano's 2018 lower East Rift Zone eruption and summit collapse", "Hawaii's Kilauea Volcano May No Longer Be Active After Erupting Almost Continuously for 35 Years, Destroying Hundreds of Homes", "Kilauea Alerts Archive – Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Weekly Update – December 4, 2018", "Kilauea Volcano's Deadliest Eruption Revealed", "The Emperor and Hawaiian Volcanic Chains: How well do they fit the plume hypothesis? Kūpaʻianahā built up a low, broad volcanic shield, and lava tubes fed flows extending 11 to 12 km (about 7 mi) to the sea. Eruptions, earthquakes, and a lower lava lake", "Kilauea volcano in Hawaii could erupt after hundreds of small earthquakes", "Ige signs emergency proclamation following Leilani lava eruption", "M 6.9 – 16km SW of Leilani Estates, Hawaii", "26 Leilani Estates homes destroyed by lava, county officials say", http://www.staradvertiser.com/2018/05/09/hawaii-news/new-vents-destroy-another-leilani-estates-home/, "Lava threatens a key escape route, forces evacuations", "Ongoing eruption claims at least 87 homes", "State pledges $12M for lava response as number of homes destroyed rises to 600", Hawaii County Civil Defense,"East Rift Zone Eruption – 6/18/18 6AM", "East Rift Zone Eruption: Mon, 6/25, 4PM – Update 2", "Volcano Watch: It's an extraordinary time on Kīlauea Volcano! [37] The eruption lasted for 26 days and produced an estimated 205 to 265 million cubic meters of lava;[23] the light created by the event was so intense that one could reportedly read a newspaper in Hilo at night, 30 km (19 mi) away. The Kilauea caldera is the main crater, but there are more than 10 other craters on the volcano, mainly along its East Rift Zone. Photo by Jim Griggs, 1985 (U.S. Geological Survey). Kilauea is a shield volcano —a wide, flat volcano resembling a warrior shield composed mostly of hardened lava flows from earlier eruptions. She is said to reside in Halemaʻumaʻu crater, a persistently active pit within the summit caldera. [24] Kīlauea built itself up from the seafloor over time, and thus much of its bulk remains underwater;[21] its subaerial surface is in the form of a gently sloping, elongate, decentralized shield with a surface area of approximately 1,500 km2 (579 sq mi),[25] making up 13.7 percent of the island's total surface area. [43] The eruption began on January 3, 1983, along the eastern rift zone. [23], After the Halemaʻumaʻu event, Kīlauea remained relatively quiet, and for a time, completely silent, with all activity confined to the summit. You can drive right up to it, park, and walk down a short trail to peer into the volcano crater. Kīlauea's eruptive history has been a long and active one; its name means "spewing" or "much spreading" in the Hawaiian language, referring to its frequent outpouring of lava. Advancing lava flows caused additional evacuation orders, including the town of Kapoho. There have been five historical eruptions at the volcano's relatively quiet southwestern rift zone, and 24 along its more active eastern rift zone, mostly along its upper section. [48], On September 5, 2008, scientists observed a lava pond deep within the Overlook Crater for the first time. Its surface makes up an area slightly smaller than the island of Oʻahu. The northern part of Kīlauea is mostly below 1,000 m (3,281 ft) and receives more than 75 in (191 cm) mean annual rainfall, and can mostly be classified as a lowland wet community; farther south, the volcano has squeezed out much of the precipitation and receives less than 50 in (127 cm) mean annual rainfall, and is considered mostly a lowland dry environment. Like all Hawaiian volcanoes, Kīlauea was created as the Pacific tectonic plate moved over the Hawaiian hotspot in the Earth's underlying mantle. Halemaʻumaʻu, a fully formed pit crater after the 1919 event and the site of a sizable lava lake, first drained, then quickly began sinking into the ground, deepening to nearly 210 m (689 ft) beneath a thick cloud of volcanic ash. It had the longest duration of any observed eruption at this volcano. Both pāhoehoe and ʻaʻā lava erupted from the volcano. At least 1,200 years ago, lava from the Powers Caldera overtopped its rim and solidified the structure; this was followed by a period of very voluminous tube-fed pāhoehoe flows from the summit. Kilauea is a shield-type volcano making up the south-eastern side of the Big Island of Hawaii. ", "USGS: Volcano Hazards Program HVO Kilauea", "Hawaii Volcano Observatory – Thirteen Years of Puʻu ʻŌʻō Erupting", "Surges Interspersed Among Steady-state Activity", "Puʻu ʻŌʻō and the Current Eruption of Kīlauea", "Chronology of Kīlauea's summit eruption, 2008–2017", "Volcano Watch: A busy time at Kīlauea Volcano's summit and East Rift Zone", "Volcano Watch: Do recent changes herald the opening of a new vent on Pu'u 'Ō'ō? [22], At most 600,000 years old, Kīlauea is still quite young for a Hawaiian volcano;[17] the oldest volcano on the island, the northwestern Kohala, experienced almost 900,000 years of activity before going extinct. [33], The oldest well-studied eruptive product from Kīlauea is the Uwēkahuna Ash Member, the product of explosive eruptions between 2,800 and 2,100 years ago. Today, tourism is driven by the island's exotic tropical locations,[110] and Kīlauea, being one of the few volcanoes in the world in a more or less constant state of moderate eruption, was a major part of the island's tourist draw. Nonetheless, wildlife flourishes where left undisturbed elsewhere on the volcano and is highly endemic thanks to Kīlauea's (and the island of Hawaiʻi's) isolation from the nearest landmass. Hawaiian chants and oral traditions tell in veiled form of many eruptions fomented by an angry Pele before the first European, the missionary Rev. "Hawaiian" eruptions may occur along fissures or fractures that serve as linear vents, such as during the eruption of Mauna Loa Volcano in Hawaii in 1950; or they may occur at a central vent such as during the 1959 eruption in Kilauea Iki Crater of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Some of the oldest reliably dated rock, 43,000 years old, comes from charcoal sandwiched beneath an ash layer on a fault scarp known as Hilina Pali; however, samples dated from higher up the scarp indicate ash deposition at an average rate of 6 m (20 ft) per thousand years, indicating that the oldest exposed flows, from the base of the feature, could date back as far as 70,000 years. [111] According to the National Park Service, Kīlauea is visited by roughly 2.6 million people annually, most of whom proceeded to visit the volcano from the Kilauea Visitor Center near the park entrance. Another missionary, C. S. Stewart, U.S.N., wrote of it in his journal 'A Residence in the Sandwich Islands', which Letitia Elizabeth Landon quoted from in the notes to her poem 'The Volcano of Ki-Rau-E-A' in Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap Book, 1832. [71] However, during the December 2020 eruption, this scenario did not occur, as the eruption was non-explosive in nature, with three vents feeding magma into the lake and boiling off the water. The main building has been moved twice since establishment, and today is positioned on the northwest rim of Kīlauea's caldera. Activity there was nearly continuous for much of the 19th century, capped by a massive explosive eruption in 1924, before petering out by 1934. This activity eventually gave way to the construction of Mauna Iki, building up the large lava shield on the volcano's southwest rift zone over a period of eight months. [76], In 2018, the United States Geological Survey National Volcanic Threat Assessment gave Kīlauea an overall threat score of 263, and ranked it first among volcanoes in the United States most likely to threaten lives and infrastructure. [60][61] By June 4, with the lava having crossed through Kapoho and entered the ocean, the confirmed number of houses lost had reached 159. [22], The length and origin of these eruptions have also varied. Land was divided into regions designed for both the immediate needs of the populace and the long-term welfare of the environment. The park provides a number of hiking trails, points of interest, and guided ranger programs. On March 19, 2008, following several months of increased sulfur dioxide emissions and seismic tremor, a new vent opened at Halemaʻumaʻu at Kilauea's summit in an explosive eruption. [38], Activity in 1921–1923 followed. Kīlauea erupted nearly continuously from 1983 to 2018, causing considerable property damage, including the destruction of the towns of Kalapana and Kaimū along with the renowned black sand beach, in 1990. This unexpected communication is evidence of crustal-level interactions between Mauna Loa and Kīlauea, even though these two volcanoes are thought to be fairly independent of each other. Kilauea is one if not the most active volcano in the world Kilauea’s longest period of inactivity is recorded at 18 years between 1934 and 1952, making many volcanologists rank it as the world's most active volcano. Astronauts of Apollo 12, Apollo 14, Apollo 15, Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 used this training on the Moon. [30] The eastern rift zone in particular is a dominant feature on the volcano; it is almost entirely covered in lava erupted in the last 400 years, and at its crest near the summit is 2 to 4 km (1 to 2 mi) wide. In fact, the summit of Kīlauea lies on a curving line of volcanoes that includes Mauna Kea and Kohala and excludes Mauna Loa. Whereas this type of seismicity was observed on average once every few weeks following the 2018 eruption, rates have increased to over a dozen in the past several days. Thurston, who owned the Honolulu Advertiser newspaper, printed editorials in favor of the idea; by 1911 Governor Walter F. Frear had proposed a draft bill to create "Kilauea National Park". [35] Kīlauea has been the site of 61 separate eruptions since 1823, easily making it one of the most active volcanoes on Earth. [108] Originally called "Hawaii National Park", it was split from the Haleakala National Park on September 22, 1960. [27], Kīlauea has a large summit caldera, measuring 4 by 3.2 km (2.5 by 2.0 mi) with walls up to 120 m (400 ft) high, breached by lava flows on the southwestern side. Kīlauea is an active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands. 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