As the name suggests, the stratum spinosum is spiny in appearance due to the protruding cell processes that join the cells via a structure called a desmosome. The Chemical Level of Organization, 2.1 Elements and Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter, 2.4 Inorganic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning, 2.5 Organic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning, Chapter 3. In many animals, there is a pattern of storing excess calories as fat to be used in times when food is not readily available. A couple of the more noticeable disorders, albinism and vitiligo, affect the appearance of the skin and its accessory organs. A keratinocyte is a cell that manufactures and stores the protein keratin. By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the layers of the skin and the functions of each layer. This ABC video follows the story of a pair of fraternal African-American twins, one of whom is albino. See the answer. Photomicrograph of thick skin. The hypodermis consists of well-vascularized, loose, areolar connective tissue and abundant adipose tissue, which functions as a mode of fat storage and provides insulation and cushioning for the integument. Name the 4 layers of thin skin in both the cartoon and the photomicrograph. 32) In the photomicrograph of a portion of thick skin shown below, which layer is only seen in thick skin? Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance, 27.3 Physiology of the Female Sexual System, 27.4 Physiology of the Male Sexual System, 28.4 Maternal Changes During Pregnancy, Labor, and Birth, 28.5 Adjustments of the Infant at Birth and Postnatal Stages. The stratum basale is a single layer of cells primarily made of basal cells. The second is a melanocyte, a cell that produces the pigment melanin. These cells exist in progressive stages of differentiation from the deepest to the superficial layers of cells. This layer has the nickname "prickly cell layer" due to the way the cells bind to each other when they shrink. PIXOLOGICSTUDIO/Science Photo Library/Getty Images The five layers of the epidermis include the stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum and stratum corneum. View Lab Report - Cherenfant_iLab 4.docx from BIO 251 at Chamberlain College of Nursing. The epidermis is composed of which of the following tissues? It requires about 10 days after initial sun exposure for melanin synthesis to peak, which is why pale-skinned individuals tend to suffer sunburns of the epidermis initially. hair follicle, sweat gland, and subcutaneous layer. As new cells are formed, the existing cells are pushed superficially away from the stratum basale. Get more help from chegg. This is an online quiz called Layers of The Epidermis. The Lymphatic and Immune System, 21.1 Anatomy of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems, 21.2 Barrier Defenses and the Innate Immune Response, 21.3 The Adaptive Immune Response: T lymphocytes and Their Functional Types, 21.4 The Adaptive Immune Response: B-lymphocytes and Antibodies, 21.5 The Immune Response against Pathogens, 21.6 Diseases Associated with Depressed or Overactive Immune Responses, 21.7 Transplantation and Cancer Immunology, 22.1 Organs and Structures of the Respiratory System, 22.6 Modifications in Respiratory Functions, 22.7 Embryonic Development of the Respiratory System, 23.2 Digestive System Processes and Regulation, 23.5 Accessory Organs in Digestion: The Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder, 23.7 Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look, 25.1 Internal and External Anatomy of the Kidney, 25.2 Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney: Anatomy of the Nephron, 25.3 Physiology of Urine Formation: Overview, 25.4 Physiology of Urine Formation: Glomerular Filtration, 25.5 Physiology of Urine Formation: Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion, 25.6 Physiology of Urine Formation: Medullary Concentration Gradient, 25.7 Physiology of Urine Formation: Regulation of Fluid Volume and Composition, Chapter 26. The hypodermis is home to most of the fat that concerns people when they are trying to keep their weight under control. Label the photomicrograph of thin skin. A finger-like projection, or fold, known as the dermal papilla (plural = dermal papillae) is found in the superficial portion of the dermis. There are two layers of epidermis, the living basal layer, which is next to the dermis, and the external stratum corneum, or horny layer, which is composed of dead, keratin-filled cells that have migrated outward from the basal layer. Expert Answer 89% (9 ratings) Previous question Next question Transcribed Image Text from this Question. Epidermal cells and layers of the epidermis. Cells in this layer are shed periodically and are replaced by cells pushed up from the stratum granulosum (or stratum lucidum in the case of the palms and soles of feet). Download this stock image: Skin, light micrograph. View this animation to learn more about layers of the skin. As the stratum basale continues to produce new cells, the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum are pushed into the stratum granulosum. It has a fifth layer, called the stratum lucidum, located between the stratum corneum and the stratum granulosum (Figure 5.1.2). 33) In the photomicrograph of a portion of thick skin shown below, which layer is the stratum basale? The increased keratinization (also called cornification) of the cells in this layer gives it its name. Other changes in the appearance of skin coloration can be indicative of diseases associated with other body systems. The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue, 12.1 Structure and Function of the Nervous System, Chapter 13. Learning Objective 2: 5.1.1 Describe the layers of the epidermis and the cells that compose them. The stratum spinosum is composed of eight to 10 layers of keratinocytes, formed as a result of cell division in the stratum basale (Figure 5.1.5). This superficial layer of the dermis projects into the stratum basale of the epidermis to form finger-like dermal papillae (see Figure 5.1.6). The stratum basale is the deepest layer, while the stratum corneum is the outermost layer of epidermis. correct Answer: Keratinized stratified squamous epithelial tissue Match the following cells with their function: Dendritic (Langerhans) cells. The epidermis provides protection, the dermis provides support and flexibility, and the hypodermis (fat layer) provides insulation and padding. The pigment melanin, produced by melanocytes, is primarily responsible for skin color. The stratum granulosum contains granules rich in lipids, providing a waterproof sealant for the skin. What determines the color of skin, and what is the process that darkens skin when it is exposed to UV light? This dry, dead layer helps prevent the penetration of microbes and the dehydration of underlying tissues, and provides a mechanical protection against abrasion for the more delicate, underlying layers. Where the fat is deposited and accumulates within the hypodermis depends on hormones (testosterone, estrogen, insulin, glucagon, leptin, and others), as well as genetic factors. Identify the following: Epidermis, sebaceous (oil) gland, ... Identify the epidermis, dermis and determine the type of tissue in each Epidermis (keratinized stratified ... the cartoon and the photomicrograph. http://virtualslides.med_umich.edu/Histology/Basic%20Tissues/Epithelium%20and%20CT/106_HISTO_40X.svs/view.apml? In addition, the papillary layer contains phagocytes, defensive cells that help fight bacteria or other infections that have breached the skin. Recent studies indicate that a distressing percentage of our population is overweight and/or clinically obese. The increased keratinization (also called cornification) of the cells in this layer gives it its name. A basal cell is a cuboidal-shaped stem cell that is a precursor of the keratinocytes of the epidermis. It has only two layers: the papillary layer with papillae that extend into the epidermis and the lower, reticular layer composed of loose connective tissue. This stored fat can serve as an energy reserve, insulate the body to prevent heat loss, and act as a cushion to protect underlying structures from trauma. The stratum basale is the layer closest to the dermis. Hair. With a prolonged reduction in oxygen levels, dark red deoxyhemoglobin becomes dominant in the blood, making the skin appear blue, a condition referred to as cyanosis (kyanos is the Greek word for “blue”). The nuclei and other cell organelles disintegrate as the cells die, leaving behind the keratin, keratohyalin, and cell membranes that form the stratum lucidum and the stratum corneum. The surface of the skin is made up of the stratum corneum (purple with white spaces) - 2ADDE1G from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. Therefore, its accuracy as a health indicator can be called into question in individuals who are extremely physically fit. A sudden drop in oxygenation can affect skin color, causing the skin to initially turn ashen (white). The first thing a clinician sees is the skin, and so the examination of the skin should be part of any thorough physical examination. This leads to a loss of color in patches (Figure 5.1.9). Two other cell types are found dispersed among the basal cells in the stratum basale. There are usually 15 to 30 layers of cells in the stratum corneum. Neither albinism nor vitiligo directly affects the lifespan of an individual. Unstained epidermis samples do not exhibit this characteristic appearance. The epidermis is the outermost layer of our skin. Label the photomicrograph of thin skin.. View the University of Michigan WebScope at http://virtualslides.med_umich.edu/Histology/Basic%20Tissues/Epithelium%20and%20CT/106_HISTO_40X.svs/view.apml? Albinism is a genetic disorder that affects (completely or partially) the coloring of skin, hair, and eyes. What Are the Steps of Presidential Impeachment? Fascia is a thick connective tissue wrapping that surrounds skeletal muscles anchoring them to surrounding tissues and investing groups of muscles. Epidermis dermis stratum granulosum stratum spinosum stratum basale stratum corneum. The nuclei and other cell organelles disintegrate as the cells die, leaving behind the keratin, keratohyalin, and cell membranes that will form the stratum lucidum, and the stratum corneum. Exposure to UV irradiation stimulates the melanocytes to produce and secrete more melanin. Here is a quick and fun way to remember the layers of the epidermis as seen in thick skin. 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