community of supporters in Be supported when you need it with unlimited sessions from your licensed counselor over smartphone, tablet or computer. Because health workers frequently used unclean needles for schistosomiasis treatment, at least 10 percent of Egypt’s population came to be infected with Hepatitis C.44 In addition, an estimated 150,000 Egyptians are newly infected every year, and each infected Egyptian typically passes the disease on to three others.45. Egypt. Health. Factbook > Countries > Egypt > Geography. 1. For example, Egyptian classroom densities are commonly in excess of one hundred students, and a large percentage of eighth grade students do not meet basic literacy standards.39, Economists who have explored these issues in great depth suggest that Egypt’s crisis of youth opportunity relates specifically to the lack of upward mobility for middle-class Egyptians.40 While overall measures of inequality of opportunity may have declined in Egypt over time, the fortunes of those born into the middle class have become increasingly similar to those born into lower-class families. Global geopolitical tensions, particularly in the Middle East, along with the domestic political situation, play a major role in discouraging investment, and make it difficult to predict significant developments in investment flows. On August 18, President al-Sisi approved a new law regulating the internet called the Anti-Cyber and Information Technology Crimes Law (Cybercrime Law). Egypt Economic Outlook. The government continued to silence critics through arrests and unfair prosecutions of journalists and bloggers, and the parliament issued severely restrictive laws that further curtail freedom of speech and access to information. However, while state officials claimed the elections were transparent and fair, results only reflected the former status quo, with the government-affiliated Egyptian Trade Union Federation (ETUF) emerging from the process effectively in control of the unions. Egypt ranked sixth in highest numbers of executions and third in the largest number of death sentences in the world in 2017. The Muslim Brotherhood was the best-organized opposition party. Fertility rates began increasing in the years leading up to 2011, however, as a result of a relaxation of family planning policies.22 Political instability may have also influenced implementation of population-related policies. While we cannot know the precise cause, Egyptians were optimistic about the future for the months following the resignation of Mubarak, perhaps impacting population growth rates.23 The largest year-on-year population surge, however, was in the year after the Muslim Brotherhood came to power; some analysts have suggested that the Brotherhood may have undermined population control efforts while in office.24 Al-Sisi’s campaign against international NGOs has led foreign family planning providers to leave Egypt.25 While NGOs provided 10 percent of all contraceptives in Egypt in 1995, that figure fell to less than 1 percent in 2016; overall contraceptive availability has also declined significantly over time.26. Although he claimed enforced disappearances are not systematic in Egypt, he failed to explain why the Interior Ministry did not report the whereabouts of 500 people to families who had submitted official complaints. In one incident of sectarian violence on August 31, mobs ransacked and looted five homes in Minya’s Dimshau Hashim village, after rumors circulated that Christian villagers were planning to build a church. close. Several UN experts, including the high commissioner for human rights and UN special procedure mandate holders, have on several occasions individually or collectively condemned abuses in Egypt, including the systematic targeting of human rights defenders, verdicts against protesters, and death sentences following unfair trials. Thousands of residents in the east rely on rain water. Economic activity appears to have improved somewhat in recent months, following a 1.7% year-on-year contraction in Q2 (Q1: +5.0% yoy). Hepatitis C is typically transmitted through contact with contaminated blood, especially through shared needles. This book represents a look beyond theories and analogies to examine the challenges of strategy implementation. It is often Egypt’s poorest who live in low-lying areas and are being most impacted by these negative externalities of climate change.58. More. In May, the Task Force to Combat FGM issued a statement condemning the extremely lax efforts made to advance the National Strategy Against FGM (2016-2020) and the law’s inadequate protection of girls’ lives and health. More. In April, parliament approved constitutional amendments to lengthen the presidential term from four to six years, which would allow President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi to stay in power until 2030 if he wins another election. Economy | January 18th 2021 Siemens signs up as partner for Egyptian rail project. Home/Issues/ Informal Economy in Egypt: Problems and Solutions. That said, overall funding levels in Egypt are still relatively low … Telecommunications and electricity are still sometimes shut for days or weeks in some areas. More. These courts do not guarantee a fair trial and their decisions are not subject to appeal. Some cases have been transferred to the Emergency State Security Courts, a parallel judicial system operating since October 2017, under the state of emergency that the government claims is being used only against terrorists and drug traffickers. Egypt’s also passed the country’s first comprehensive law for health insurance for citizens in January and legalized the situation of some scores of churches that the government had previously not approved for building. Beginning in January, the army launched the most intensive wave of home demolitions in Sinai in years. Political instability may have led to some backsliding, however, on issues related to population control. The arrests included those who called for boycotting the process, such as the 2012 presidential candidate and the head of the Strong Egypt Party, Abd al-Moneim Abu al-Fotouh. No group claimed responsibility for the attack, but witnesses said they carried ISIS flags. Poverty in Egypt continues to be on the rise with 27 percent of the population living under the poverty line. For example, the Nile River Delta is eroding, in some cases by as much as 10 meters a year, reducing available agricultural land.54 Arable farmland continues to decrease, making it increasingly difficult for Egyptian farmers to produce enough food for the growing population.55 Alexandria—Egypt’s second largest city—is on the front lines of rising sea levels; even a relatively modest increase in sea levels will destroy the city’s beaches entirely, while low-lying areas will be inundated with sea water.56 Seeping saltwater also has the potential to lead buildings to collapse.57 Climate related displacement has forced Egypt’s growing population to live on a smaller and smaller footprint. According to some analysts, Egypt is on track to reach a threshold of “absolute water scarcity” by 2030.50 Climate changes, particularly higher temperatures, are expected to shorten growing seasons and reduce agricultural yields in Egypt.51 Large amounts of water are also lost through evaporation every year, something that climate change will make worse.52 This is not to mention pollution damage to the Nile, which is widespread.53, Climate change is also associated with rising sea levels that have the potential to damage Egypt’s ecological situation. In the years since Morsi’s overthrow, Egypt has witnessed increasingly autocratic tendencies under the leadership of President al-Sisi. Egypt Environment - current issues. Their team of dedicated experts supports you in case of queries or problems. Yet for all of the political change that has taken place, the last ten years have also witnessed important forms of continuity. Another series of arrests launched in August included former ambassador Ma’soum Marzouk, who called for a public referendum on whether al-Sisi should resign. For example, the Egyptian startup, Affectiva, uses AI to recognize human emotions with the goal of creating wearable devices for autistic children.38, Under the right circumstances, Egypt’s large, technologically-savvy working-age population could propel the country forward. Both issues have been publicly flagged by President al-Sisi, who has stated that Hepatitis C and chronic diseases were major threats to the health of the Egyptian people. The attack killed 305 worshippers including 27 children. Egypt’s internal political situation does not need much effort to demonstrate instability as an important factor in dismissing and discouraging foreign investment. Authorities continue to arrest those who describe themselves as non-believers or atheists and jail them under “insulting religions” charges. Though amendments to the penal code introduced harsher penalties against female genital mutilation (FGM) in August 2016, application of the law is still flawed. More. Although Egypt has seen relatively robust economic growth (typically hovering between 3 and 5 percent), the gains for growth have not kept pace with the country’s many challenges, particularly the growing youth population. Military trials of civilians in Egypt are inherently unfair as all officials in military courts, including judges and prosecutors, are serving members of the military. In 2017-2018, Egypt achieved substantial progress in fighting the endemic Hepatitis C virus through a national health program that included treatment care and new steps for systematic screening. Egyptian authorities have been using counterterrorism and state-of-emergency laws and courts to unjustly prosecute bloggers, activists, and critics for their peaceful criticism. In this episode of the Area 45 podcast, David Brady and Douglas Rivers discuss America’s post-Trump political lands…, Support the Mission of the Hoover Institution, Battlegrounds: International Perspectives, Articles On: COVID-19, Chinese Communist Party, Biden Era, and GitHub, Ten Years In: Implementing Strategic Approaches To Cyberspace. How can BUE expertise be capitalized upon in these megaprojects? Egypt continues to prosecute dozens of people based on their sexual orientation or gender identity. Join the Hoover Institution’s Indeed, al-Sisi has taken the lead in overseeing the construction of Egypt’s “New Administrative Capital,” which is to be located 50 miles from downtown Cairo and will serve as the country’s new seat of bureaucracy.27 A relatively remote, newly-constructed capital city obviates the need to upgrade Cairo’s infrastructure, while simultaneously insulating the government from existing urban populations that have shown a willingness to engage in protest mobilization. Egypt has the second highest rates of female and male illiteracy and is tied for the highest rates of infant mortality. Photos of young men with Italian girlfriends, sporting expensive clothing and shoes, circulate to friends and relatives, leading some villages to be emptied of young men.34. Approximately 61 percent of the population is under the age of 30, and 40 percent is between the ages of 10 and 29.19 While it is easy to imagine that the status quo demographic conditions are unsustainable, it is impossible to predict with any accuracy the conditions under which these structural conditions pass a threshold from stability to instability. The rights group Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (EIPR) documented the closure by the authorities of 14 churches. Interestingly, the skill required for these jobs did not vary significantly across respondents with vastly different education levels. Given the stigma associated with blue collar jobs for the college educated, this is perhaps unsurprising. President Sisi recently declared 2019 “the year of education,” and public education spending was increased by 8 percent for the 2018/19 fiscal year. 7 January 2019. 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